What property does the wire increase if it is longer?nada shaban
What property does the wire increase if it is longer?
It is Electrical Resistance .
Electrical resistance is an obstruction to the flow of electric current in an electrical conductor or lighting unit. Then, the electrical source is exposed to what is known as electrical resistance, and this term is indicated by the symbol R. It is worth noting that every material has electrical resistance. This resistance is the reason behind conductors emitting heat. When exposed to an electric current, resistance is the journey of an electron in a winding, not a flat, path through the wires, which in itself is considered an obstacle to the flow of electrical charges. The electron meets the ions and collides with them through the conductor, bulb, or source of electricity used, and thus finds it difficult to move and flow. Current, from here, electrical resistance arises or occurs. Therefore, when the length of the wire increases, it becomes longer and thinner. Then the electrical charges will encounter an obstacle in moving through it, and thus the resistance increases. By analogy, electrical resistance is the property that increases in the wire as its length increases. We explain through The following linesA simple equation enables us to have a good understanding of electrical resistance:
R : This letter is a symbol of the term electrical resistance
P : indicates the resistance of the material
L : indicates the length of the wire
A : Refers to the cross-sectional area of a conductor or electrical source
We will review next an example based on the previous equation, in order to clarify the percentage of the original resistance in the normal length of the wire and its percentage after increasing the length of the wire. When the length of the wire indicated by the letter L is doubled, it turns into 2L, and therefore with the increase in length, the cross-sectional area of the conductor decreases to half its value. , which existed before the length of the wire increased, so the symbol for A, expressed in the equation, will turn into A’ or 2A, and thus the equation turns into:
Then the resistance here becomes 4R, meaning that the resistance doubled with the increase in the length of the wire, which led to an increase in the resistance and a decrease in the cross-section in the conductor. We conclude from the above that electrical resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire indicated by the letter L, and inversely proportional to the cross section expressed in the equation by the symbol A.
Electrical resistance Ohm’s law
In the following lines, we will explain the definition of resistance according to Ohm’s Law, which was established by the German scientist Georg Ohm, to measure the rate of resistance, which increases as the length of the electrical wire increases. The equation of the law is as follows:
V ∝ I V = IR
V : is the voltage measured in volts in the conductor
I : The electrical current in the conductor, measured in amperes
R : symbol to express electrical resistance
The electrical resistance that will be calculated through this Ohm’s Law equation is the ratio between the conductor’s voltage measured in volts V and that applied to the electrical current flowing through it , and therefore the equation will be arranged again in the following form, in order to express the electrical resistance according to the famous Ohm’s Law:
Materials and electrical resistance
Since resistance is a measure of the extent to which the material used in the conductor is able to resist electrical flow, therefore, we explain below some materials and their ability to resist electricity. Materials with low percentages are good conductors of electricity and therefore are less resistant:
- Silver : 1.00 x 10-8
- Copper : 1.68×10-8
- Aluminium : 2.82×10-8
- Wood : 1.00 x 1014
- Air : 2.30×1016
- Teflon : 1.00×
We conclude from the above that the electrical resistance rate of aluminum wire is higher than that of silver and copper wire, because the electrical current in silver wire, for example, is higher than that of aluminum and thus the resistance rate decreases.
Advantages and disadvantages of electrical resistance
Advantages of electrical resistance : Resistance is the reason why we use electricity, light and heat in various devices, whether at work or at home.
Disadvantages of electrical resistance :
- Resistance is not preferred during electrical conductors, because it may convert some of the electrical energy into thermal energy, thus resulting in the loss of some of the electrical energy.
- Electrical resistance increases significantly in wires that are smaller in size and larger in length, but if the electrical voltage increases, the current flowing through the small wires will rise, and their temperature will increase, and the matter may be exacerbated by the outbreak of burns and explosions.
- Another disadvantage of resistance is the noise inside the electrical circuits.
Electrical resistance, like anything else, has benefits, as well as some drawbacks. It can be good or bad when electrical current flows.
Factors on which electrical resistance depends
- Wire Length.
- Wire Material.
- Wire Temperature.
Wire Length : Electrical resistance is the property that increases with the length of the wire used, as the resistance is directly proportional to the length. It is possible to try the matter with wires of different lengths, as the length of the wire reduces the voltage in each cm of the wire, with a decrease in the ability of electron movement. While walking in the wire, the electrical resistance capacity that we are talking about throughout this report increases, as the decrease in electron movement means a decrease in the current and thus an increase in the resistance rate.
Cross-sectional-area : As we explained in the previous lines, resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire, but it is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the conductor. The greater the cross-sectional area, the more electrons move without hindrance, and thus the strength of electrical energy increases. The resistance percentage decreases, because each cm of wire gets its own voltage rating without a decrease, unlike what happens with long wires, which reduce the voltage and electrical current capacity and accordingly the electrical resistance increases.
The material from which the wire is made : One of the factors on which electrical resistance also depends is the material from which the wire is made, because the material is what determines the extent of the atom’s attachment to the external electrons, as increasing the atom’s attachment to the external electrons leads to a decrease in the flow of electric current, because the atom must To allow the electron to move and roam in the wires, so that the material from which the wire is made turns into a conductor, but if the atom prevents the electrons from moving, the material from which the wire is made turns into an insulator. It is worth noting that silver, although it is considered the best material for conductors, does not enter In the manufacture of wires due to the high cost, therefore copper and aluminum come as alternatives to them, because they have good conductivity, in addition to the low cost.
Wire Temperature : The percentage of electrical resistance increases as the temperature of the wire increases, meaning that the wire with the highest temperature causes a large vibration of the atomic lattice, with which the degree of electrical resistance increases, because the vibration in the atomic lattice prevents electrical electrons from moving without moving. It interacts with the surrounding atom, and thus by impeding the movement of electrons, the resistance capacity increases.
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